Backyard chickens - the romance and the reality by Patricia Thompson
As a lifelong urban dweller I used to have a rather romantic view about what it would be like to keep a few chickens in the back yard. I pictured them strutting around decoratively, clucking contentedly and delivering a daily gift of beautiful fresh eggs on a bed of sweet smelling straw.
Twelve years of chicken-keeping later, I still love backyard poultry husbandry – but the rose-tinted specs have gone. I look forward to the welcoming clucky clamour which greets me each morning, the cuddles my five ‘ladies’ demand, their ‘help’ when I’m weeding and chicken legs waving from the sunny dustbowl they’ve scratched up outside my kitchen window. A gift of fabulous golden-yolked eggs is an added bonus – I appreciate knowing the journey of my eggs from chicken to plate.
However, the other side of chicken-keeping involves toiling come rain, come shine - and frequently, for me, in the teeth of howling Wellington winds - doing the weekly ‘mucking out’ of the small mountain of manure even a few chickens will produce. You’ll need somewhere to compost it too. You may need to deal with broody hens, sick, injured or egg-bound hens and the interest hens can inspire among the local dog, stoat or rat population.
Back yard chicken-keeping can quickly lose its allure. I have two elderly white Leghorns and three red Shaver hens. I bought my Shavers in the depths of last winter, from a first-time chicken keeper who was bailing out after a few months. The look of sheer relief on her face as I loaded the box of feathered ginger hooligans into my car spoke volumes. Keeping a few backyard chickens, doesn’t mean ‘free’ eggs either. My experience is you’ll be lucky to break even on costs. Chickens can live for 8-10 years or more - so that’s years of care and feeding long after they’ve stopped laying. You also can’t eat the eggs for some time after worming or other parasite treatments.
Decent coops are costly – unless you can build your own. I’ve tried the relatively cheap mass-produced flat pack type, as have friends, but we’ve all eventually moved onto something more robust. It’s essential that chickens are secure, and warm and dry at night. Many people think chickens can live on household scraps. But for chickens to lay well and be healthy, they need chicken-specific food. Mine are largely fed on layers pellets, a small amount of dog roll, for extra protein and I gather puha/rauriki native greens for them and grow silverbeet, borage and comfrey to supplement their diet.
The ideal is to have a fenced off area of your garden for your chickens to roam during the day – but be prepared to adapt the height of the fencing. Different chickens, like any animal, have different personalities and physical abilities. My shavers are content to potter behind wire but my leghorns are experts at vertical takeoff. Not surprisingly, the main cause of chickens ending up in SPCA care is because they’ve been found wandering the streets. Even when you are confident your chicken security is sufficient to keep your birds in, you need to consider if it will keep unwanted visitors out. Our own dogs are socialised around the chickens but we’ve experienced two traumatic chicken attacks by a high-jumping neighbourhood dog.
We think the cost and effort is worth it for the pleasure our chickens bring to us – but I’d advise anyone thinking of “keeping a few chickens” to go into it with eyes wide open, research done and rose-tinted specs off.
Patricia’s costs for five backyard hens
Set up costs
• Good quality coop: $400 – plus additional materials to build a larger run.
• Poultry bell hanging water dispenser – because chickens will just kick dirt or chook poop into a bowl: $30.
• Chooketeria – automatic poultry feeder - to help prevent wild birds eating the pellets - and potentially spreading parasitic infections to the chickens: $135.
• Point of lay pullets: $25-$30 each
• Hay bale for bedding: $16 about every six weeks.
• Layer’s pellets: $12 a fortnight.
• Grit/oyster shell: $6 for three months’ supply.
• Diatomaceous earth, to repel mites: $17.50 every three months.
• Worming costs and vets’ bills: Varies.
The art and science of keeping backyard chickens
Chickens can be wonderful companions and are energetic, inquisitive, and friendly animals. Keeping backyard chickens is also becoming increasingly popular as part of local, sustainable and organic food movements. Chickens are a lot of fun to have but the decision to keep them should not be made lightly. Chickens need dedicated and consistent care and, just like when considering adding a cat or dog to your family, there are important issues you need to consider before you made the decision to start your own chicken flock.
Chickens need company, so you should have a minimum of three chickens in your flock. Consider carefully what kind of chicken will be best for your circumstances; there are many different breeds of all shapes and sizes.
Be aware that if you are hatching eggs there are generally half male and half female chicks as a result. People can find it difficult to find homes for the males but roosters deserve homes too and should never be dumped. Roosters will crow so if you have male chickens you need to be aware of this and of council requirements for keeping chickens and noise control. You should never use a rooster collar to try and stop a rooster from crowing; these devices are cruel. Getting pullets (young female hens) or hens that have already started laying (~21 weeks) is a good way to avoid this. Please consider adopting chickens from your local SPCA or rescue group.
Your chickens need somewhere safe to live, away from other animals that might hurt them (cats, dogs, birds of prey and other potential predators). This can be provided by a well set up coop. The coop should be the biggest and best you can afford.
The coop should have:
- An indoor area where the birds can shelter, sleep and nest. This needs to protect the birds from the sun, rain and wind but it also needs to be well ventilated.
- Adequate roosts/perches at different levels so that all your chickens can perch at the same time. The perches should not be positioned over each other or over areas that should not be covered in waste (e.g. not over water or food).
- A safe outdoor area where the birds can exercise, enjoy the sunshine and fresh air and express normal behaviours such as scratching, foraging and dust bathing.
- Nest boxes with appropriate bedding in them such as straw or wood shavings. Nest boxes should be secluded, warm, clean and safe and there should be enough for all of your hens (at least one nest box for every 3-4 hens). This area needs to be cleaned regularly to minimise problems with parasites such as red mites. Some food grade diatomaceous earth can be added to the bedding in the nest boxes to help with parasite control.
- A dust bathing area. Dust bathing is an important normal behavior for chickens. You can fill a tire or paddle pool with dirt, sand, or peat. You can also add a little food grade diatomaceous earth to this, which can help with parasite control.
- A container of ‘grit’. Chickens need small pebbles and grit to help them to digest their food (remember they don’t have teeth to chew their food!)
- They also need extra calcium once they start laying and especially as they get a little older. You can get soluble calcium grit or add dried out eggshells (bake the empty shells in the oven and then crush them) to provide the ladies with extra calcium for their eggs.
- Clean water from a watering system that is easy for the birds to drink from. Birds don’t have lips, so it can be hard for them to drink water when it is down low. The water container should be placed somewhere where it is out of the sun (so it does not get too hot). Hanging drinkers can be a good way to achieve this. Fresh water is always best!
- Good quality commercial chicken feed in a feed container that is not accessible to other birds.
- Grit, water and feed containers should be placed somewhere where they cannot be tipped over, dirtied or walked in by other birds.
- Enrichment such as green leafy vegetables (e.g. kale or brussel sprouts) strung up in the coop so the birds can peck at them, watermelons, food toys, ramps and different levels within the coop, areas in which they can scratch and peck, are all great ideas for enriching your chicken coop. There are lots of fun ideas out there for chicken enrichment!
- And if you’re really keen, chickens are very easily trained with clicker training to do all sorts of tricks….
Your chickens will need some good quality commercial layer hen pellets as well as getting supplemental fresh food. The pellets contain an important and balanced mix of vitamins and minerals that the birds need which can be lacking in diets consisting of simply kitchen scraps. Chickens should not just be fed kitchen scraps, as they need a balanced diet, just like you and me. Be aware that certain plants and foods can also be toxic to chickens. For example, you should not give them raw green potato peels, dried or undercooked beans, or avocados. It is better if chickens are given mostly fresh foods that are not too energy dense or sugary (for example, give them plenty of leafy greens and limit the quantity of foods such as corn and fruits that have a high energy and sugar content). Chickens need fresh feed and water every day and food that is old, moldy, or stale should be cleaned up and thrown away.
Ideally your chickens should be able to have some time out of the coop and free-ranging in the backyard if it is safe. The outdoor ranging area should have good cover to protect the chickens from predators (this can be bush, shrub or tree cover or man made cover). Remember that other species of bird can bully chickens (for example, ducks, turkeys etc). If it is not possible for your chickens to free-range then it is of even greater importance to provide them with enrichment and a varied diet, including a balanced chicken feed and fresh vegetables and fruit. Check for poisonous plants and weeds in the area the chickens have access to and keep the grass short to avoid the birds getting grass impaction from eating long grass.
Remember that hens do not lay eggs all year round. They need some time off every now and then just like we do! When your hens are laying don’t forget to collect the eggs every day to prevent the eggs going rotten, hatching (if you have a rooster), getting broken or the hens starting to eat them.
Chickens should be checked daily for wounds, feather loss, parasites such as red mite and general health. Chickens are a lot smarter than most people think and can be trained! You can train them to be handled and to come into their coop at night and allow themselves to be picked up so you can check their health every day. Plus, it’s fun to hug a chook!
Your chickens should be wormed every three months and possibly treated for red mite (talk to your veterinarian about this). It is a good idea to include the chicken coop in your regular cleaning routine. Remember that after giving any kind of medication to your hens you will need to avoid eating their eggs for a certain amount of time (this is called a withdrawal period, varies with different medications and will be stated on the medication information). Remember that your chickens will need veterinary care so take this into account when considering the costs of caring for your chickens.
Observe your chickens regularly, not only is it fun to watch them, but you will get to know your different birds, their personalities and what is normal and abnormal for each bird. If a chicken is behaving abnormally this is usually a sign that something is very wrong. Birds tend to hide signs of illness until they are very ill so please get veterinary care as soon as possible if you notice any problems. If you already have chickens and are introducing new birds to your flock you should temporarily quarantine the new birds for two weeks, treat them for parasites, watch the birds closely for signs of illness and only introduce the new chickens into your flock if they are healthy.
Don’t forget that your chickens will need daily care if you go away on holiday. It can be very rewarding to have chickens and they can be excellent companions for adults and children alike. However, in order to keep the chickens as happy and healthy as they deserve, they need a lot of dedicated care. There is a lot to consider before making the decision to start your own backyard flock.
You might think that your independent, nap-loving cat can amuse themselves day-to-day. But that’s far from the truth! Just like people, cats like to explore, appreciate nice smells, admire views, and observe interesting objects.
Environmental enrichment is when you introduce these smells, sights, tastes and touch into your cat’s environment – and this is something they might not be getting in your home!
Enrichment is so important for your pets because it improves their physical and mental health. It reduces stress and abnormal behaviour such as aggression, vocalization, over-grooming and inappropriate toileting.
With that in mind, here are our top 10 tips to enrich your four-legged friend and help them lead a happier and healthier life.
Tip 1 – Give your cat multiple small meals
Most cat owners feed their cats just twice a day and usually out of a bowl. Feeding them this way doesn’t require any ‘work’ from your cat to get their food, and as a result no mental or physical stimulation for them.
But there is an easy solution – divide your cats meals into several portions! Small amounts of food throughout the day recreates a cat’s natural way of eating, and will reduce possible boredom and frustration.
Tip 2 – Use puzzle feeders to feed your cat
An easy way to make your cat’s meals more interesting is using puzzle feeders! Puzzle feeders hold your cat’s food while they work out how to ‘solve’ the puzzle in different ways to release the food in small amounts.
Working for their food allows your cat to express some of their natural behaviours, and can be used to feed cats overnight, or keep your cat occupied while you are away during the day.
There are many different types of puzzle feeders to choose from. Just make sure your cat knows how each puzzle feeder works first – start with the easy ones before they get the hang of it, you don’t want your cat to become discouraged and give up!
Tip 3 – Create your own puzzle feeders
If you’re feeling creative, you can make a DIY puzzle feeder for your feline friend:
• Hide some cups your cat cannot knock over around the house. Put some dry food inside so your cat has to find the cups and scoop the food out.
• Cut a few holes in a cardboard box, put food inside and hide the box somewhere in the house. Your cat will need to find the box, then move it around until the food comes out, or they scoop it out.
• Put some dry food in an old plastic bottle and cut some small holes in it. Your cat will need to roll the bottle around until the food comes out piece by piece.
• Hide some food in a toilet roll pyramid.
These DYI puzzles will keep your cat busy for hours! As they become an expert forager you can increase the difficulty level or introduce a type of different puzzle. You’re limited only by your imagination!
Tip 4 – Plant a cat grass and herb garden
Lots of people know that cats go crazy for cat nip, but did you know that cat grass and cat mint are also a good way to give your cat taste and smell sensory enrichment?
You could consider planting a cat garden outside, or plant into pots indoors. Your cat will love it!
Just please remember to make sure any plants you have in your home or garden are not poisonous to cats.
Tip 5 – Spend time brushing and stroking your cat
Touch is a very important part of your cat’s enrichment and keeping them mentally and physically healthy. They will enjoy having a variety of different surfaces to touch and explore such as scratching posts, trees outside, and DIY toys such as a cat self-scratcher.
Something as simple as brushing and patting your cat is another way to enrich your cat through touch. If you have a long-haired cat that needs to be groomed, brushing can be a great bonding time and a way to keep their coat healthy and tangle-free.
Tip 6 – Play with your cat
Playing with your cat is not only fun for them, it’s also a way for them to experience visual sensory enrichment.
There are so many different types of toys available for your cat. Many cats enjoy interactive toys such as wand toys, they may also like stuffed mice, balls to chase or feathers.
It might take a few trials to figure out what toys your cats like best, but don’t give up!
Tip 7 – Give your cat the opportunity to enjoy the fresh air, sunshine, or view of outside.
Cats who spend time outside will easily have access to the joys of the outdoor world. But if you live in an apartment, or want to keep your cat safe and contained to your property, there are also many ways you can let them enjoy the fresh air, sunshine, smells and noises from outside.
Ways in which you can do this include:
• Enclosed deck
• Enclosed garden
• A screened window in a sunny spot you leave open for your cat to enjoy.
Allowing your cat to have access to a window that looks outside is another great way to offer visual stimulation. This is popular for both indoor cats and cats who venture outside. You could put a bed near a windowsill, a cat tower near the window or buy a specially designed cat window seat from a pet store.
Tip 8 – Give your cat a vertical space such as a cat tower
Cats naturally want to climb up high and use these high vantage points to survey their environment and to feel safe, so providing cats with a vertical space is very important. Giving your cats raised areas that they can easily access allows them to express their natural climbing and observing behaviours, gives them more opportunity to get away from other animals and people, and provides them with a sense of environmental control.
Vertical space also means your cat can spread themselves out more in a restricted house environment. This is particularly important if you have a multi-cat household – vertical space not only helps cats cope with social stress, but cats use vertical space to separate themselves from each other, reducing hostile interactions. These spaces can take the form of cat trees, scratching post towers, shelving units and wall-mounted shelves. You can encourage your cat to use spaces with treats, toys, and soft beds.
Tip 9 – Provide your cat with scratching opportunities
Scratching posts allow cats to express their normal behaviour of scratching and scent-marking. Cats will use your furniture if you don’t provide them with another suitable outlet, so scratching materials such as posts or cat trees are perfect!
Keep in mind that some cats, especially if they are older, like horizontal surfaces and others like vertical surfaces, which should be 1.5 times the height of your cat. It is most effective if you place this scratching post in a spot where your cat can also hang out with you!
Tip 10 – Provide your cat with hiding places
Make sure your cat has plenty of places to hide and feel safe. The open plan minimalist interiors most people are fond of can be scary for cats – in the wild they are hunters, but can also be hunted, so they feel most secure when they can choose to be hidden. Hiding spaces can be at various heights, but some should be up high as that is when cats feel most secure. They can be as simple as furniture to hide under, boxes, or indoor plants!
Cats are not built to sit around all day, even though they like to sleep a lot! They should be fed small meals little and often, and given the opportunity to express hunting and foraging behaviours. This keeps their minds and bodies active, and means you will have one happy and very thankful cat!
Imagine a world where you are completely alone, with no idea what tomorrow may bring. Your feet are sore from walking, and nobody can hear your cries for help.
This is sadly the reality for thousands of animals. But for a small kitten named Billie, it was much worse. For the first three months of her life Billie was fending for herself on the streets. Thankfully, she was found by a kind person and was brought to the SPCA where she was finally safe.
When our caring vets took a closer look, they realised Billie had no upper eyelids. She couldn't blink, or close her eyes properly. This rare condition made her very susceptible to eye infections, and long term damage to her eyesight.
Our SPCA team needed to act fast to give Billie the second chance she deserved. So veterinarian Kevin performed two difficult surgeries where he created her two brand new upper eyelids using skin grafts.
After weeks of recovery in a caring foster home, Billie’s eyes healed and she could blink and sleep like a normal cat. Finally, she was ready to find a family for the first time in her life. It took only two days for Billie’s new mum to walk into the SPCA and know that this sweet and special girl was the one for her. Today Billie is enjoying spending much of her time in the cosy indoors with her new mum and three feline siblings.
It’s thanks to generous people like you that Billie is now safe, happy and healthy.
Dr Jess Beer, BVSc, Qualified Veterinary Behaviourist
I’ve just adopted a puppy, Cody, and walking him is a nightmare. He pulls all the time! What can I do?
Dogs pull because they’re excited about where they’re going and by pulling they get there faster! Going for a walk is probably the highlight of Cody’s day and it’s hard to dampen that enthusiasm. It’s important to work on this while Cody is still a puppy, and always train as you mean to go on, the aim is to have a loose leash. If he is pulling while you’re out walking, stop, call his name and reward him with a treat when he comes back to you. Then continue forward, repeating as soon as he starts to pull again. Consistency and persistence is key! The sudden stop is all the pressure needed to indicate that pulling is unwanted, as Cody learns it is more rewarding to stay close to you, and then only a small amount of tension on the leash will remind Cody to slow up and stay close.
Your goal is to make Cody want to follow you and build a strong bond with him so he wants to follow you. It can be frustrating, but pulling or yanking on the leash often doesn’t work. Punitive tools such as choke chains, prong collars and martingale collars aren’t effective either because in most cases the reward of going for a walk is greater than the pain you’re inflicting.
If you’re still having trouble with his training, you may wish to look into some of the newer tools such as a halti or harness, which can help dogs who persist with pulling.
My cat Henry goes crazy at 5am! He runs around the house and wakes me up. Why does he do this?
Cats are most active at dawn and dusk, and these high energy bursts are completely normal cat behaviour. I understanding it can be frustrating though if it’s disturbing your sleep! Have you recently changed your routine? Cats like routine so if you’ve changed your work hours from weekends to weekdays, Henry may just be expecting your attention.
One way you can stop the early morning wake-ups is by ensuring Henry is entertained and exercised during the day. Set aside some time to play with him, followed by a small meal ideally in the evening just before bed. This is a good way to help him rest throughout the entire night.
Remember that like dogs, cats will repeat a behaviour if rewarded. So make sure you’re not responding to his 5am wake-up calls by giving him food or attention – this will only encourage Henry to keep waking you up at that time. Sometimes having him sleep in a separate room will minimise this rude awakening and avoid the inadvertent rewards of your attention.
My local SPCA has a rabbit Alfie who I think might be a perfect friend for my bunny Otis. I’ve heard bonding rabbits can be difficult, so what’s the best way to introduce them?
Rabbits are very sociable and often crave the companionship of their own kind, so getting a friend for Alfie could be a recipe for happiness.
Remember that while rabbits form powerful bonds, bonding them takes time, patience and commitment from you and you will need separate housing for each rabbit until they are successfully bonded. Introduce Alfie and Otis by first getting them acquainted by sight and small. Position their hutches beside each other and after a week, swap the rabbits over to the other’s hutch.
After another week try putting them together. This is best done in neutral territory where neither has been before. Rabbits are extremely territorial and may use territorial droppings, urinating and aggressive behaviour. It’s important to be prepared: have a water bottle handy to squirt them if they begin to be aggressive and have a towel handy so you can use it to pick one rabbit up if a serious fight breaks out. Never put your hand between fighting rabbits.
The more you work with Alfie and Otis, the faster the bonding process will be. So work with them every day for at least 15 minutes. Remember that when they are not fully bonded they need to be kept separate when you are not with them – and it could take from a few weeks to a few months until Alfie and Otis are a bonded pair. Once Alfie and Otis have bonded don’t separate them, even to take them to a vet. Rabbits form a bond for life and separating these two friends would cause a great deal of emotional trauma to them both. If you have further questions, or would like advice on finding a friend for your bunny, ask the staff at your local SPCA. Good luck!
I absolutely adore my cat Moby, but he won’t stop scratching my brand new couch. Help!
I can understand this is frustrating for you, but please remember that cat scratching is perfectly normal and it’s necessary for Moby’s health to help keep them stretched, limber and their nails in good health. That’s because the outer sheath needs to shed regularly, or they can suffer from painful, infected ingrown nails. Scratching is also an essential way of marking their territory – which is why you might see Moby scratching near windows or doors.
Cats will use your furniture if you don’t provide them with another appropriate outlet. So the good news for you – and your couch – is that you can teach Moby to scratch somewhere else. You’ll need some appropriate scratching materials like posts, or a cat tree. Keep in mind that some cats, especially if they are older, like horizontal surfaces and others like vertical surfaces, which should be 1.5 times the height of your cat.
Place this new scratching item near the coach and make the couch less appealing by wrapping the area where Moby scratches in bubble wrap, tin foil, or double-sided tape. Or block access to the couch, and tempt him to use the new scratching post by dangling toys or treats at the top of the post. Remember the sooner you offer alternatives to scratching your couch, the more success you will have in changing this behaviour.
The RNZSPCA (“SPCA”) board is pleased to announce the appointment of Andrea Midgen as its new chief executive officer.
In her role as CEO, Andrea will lead the newly created ‘One SPCA’ entity, a new model SPCA delegates voted for in June 2017, that will see the SPCA become one national organisation from its current 45 independent centres. The move will unify all SPCAs with a common strategy, purpose, voice and leadership for the benefit of all animals in New Zealand.
RNZSPCA Board Chair Gordon Trainer says Ms Midgen has made a tremendous contribution to the SPCA in her time with the organisation.
“We’re delighted with Andrea’s appointment and are confident she will continue to build on the crucial work she has led to date,” he says.
“Andrea, together with the other members of the SPCA’s senior leadership, has been a driving force behind the SPCA’s structural, cultural and constitutional transformation to better achieve our purpose - to create a better life for New Zealand’s animals.”
Ms Midgen says she is thrilled to officially step into the role of CEO and is looking forward to leading the organisation through the shift to one organisation.
“I’m privileged to be able to continue leading a team of people who are incredibly passionate about preventing cruelty to animals and improving the way they are treated. I’m looking forward to the next chapter and unifying the SPCA as one national organisation working together to achieve the right outcome for every animal in New Zealand.”
Ms Midgen is a proven leader with extensive CEO and senior executive experience, both within and outside the SPCA. Ms Midgen has provided strong leadership and vision for the animal welfare organisation as acting RNZSPCA CEO since July 2016, while simultaneously serving as SPCA Auckland CEO for more than two years.
Prior to joining SPCA Auckland in April 2015, Andrea held the positions of Group Strategist/CFO for Southern Cross Group and several senior executive roles in Vodafone, culminating as Director, Customer Operations. During her time at Vodafone, Andrea also developed her governance background in the charitable trusts environment as the Chair of the Vodafone New Zealand Foundation.
Ms Midgen’s new appointment starts on 14 August 2017.
For more information please contact:
Morgan Bailey, Porter Novelli for SPCA Auckland, 021 812 620